The Legacy of the Twentieth Century

Part III. The Muses' Farewell

What happened to European values and their significance? Is European culture still in crisis, or has it already demised, as the ultimate consequence of the ‘death of God’? What remains of European culture after a century marked by totalitarianism and nihilism? After World Wars, atomic bombs, and genocides, does such a culture still have a right to exist? Would it not be better to replace it with another culture, with other values? Yet, if European culture were dead and buried, what would those values be? And what happened to our concepts of ‘truth’, ‘beauty’, and ‘goodness’?

What happened to the arts in the twentieth century? In which ways did they reflect the crisis taking place within culture, and what changes did they undergo as a result of it? What happened to the knowledge of the muses, to the knowledge of culture itself ? What was the role of religion in the twentieth century? Will Europe have an answer to Nietzsche, and, if so, what will it be? It appears that religions, arts, and politics have no answers to the fundamental developments taking place in our society. What should be done? Can we once more make the muses bearers of our European culture?