Alain Finkielkraut is a philosopher and essayist. He studied comparative literature and taught French literature at Berkeley, but returned to France to teach philosophy. He has been Professor of Philosophy in Paris since 1989. Finkielkraut, who is often described as a cultural pessimist, published on subjects such as postmodern culture, populism and the multicultural society. His main works are The Defeat of the Mind (1995) and The Wisdom of Love (2001). In 2015, Finkielkraut wroteL’identité malheureuse.