Claus Offe is a political sociologist. He studied sociology, philosophy and economics and worked as a researcher and lecturer at various universities. Between 1995 and his retirement in 2005, he was Professor of Political Science at Humboldt Universität in Berlin. He then became a professor at the Hertie School of Governance. Offe wrote on democratization and integration in and outside the European Union, in books such as Modernity and the State: East and West (1996), Reflections on America. Tocqueville, Weber, and Adorno in the United States (2005) and Europe Entrapped (2015).