Frits Bolkestein

The Netherlands, 1933

Frits Bolkestein is a former politician. He studied mathematics, philosophy, Greek, economics and law. After a career in the corporate world, he entered into politics in 1978 by joining the liberal party VVD in the Dutch House of Commons. He was State Secretary of Economic Affairs, Defense Minister and led the VVD fraction from 1990 to 1998. Bolkestein then went on to become European Commissioner for the Internal Market. He has been Extraordinary Professor of the Intellectual Foundation of Political Developments at the universities of Leiden and Delft since 2004. Among his publications is The Limits of Europe (2004).