György Lukács was a literary critic and a Marxist philosopher. He studied at the universities of Berlin and Heidelberg, and became a researcher at the Marx-Engels Institute and the Philosophical Institute of the Science Academy in Moscow. He was also the editor of various literary journals. After World War II, he became Professor of Aesthetics and Cultural Philosophy at the University of Budapest. Lukács wrote numerous books and articles on political theory, Marxism, metaphysics, aesthetics and literary criticism, such History and Class Consciousness (1923), The Historical Novel (1937) and The Ontology of Social Being (1978).