Italo Calvino was a writer. He studied arts in Turin and published his debut novel, Il sentiero dei nidi di ragno (English translation The Path to the Nest of Spiders, 1957), with Einaudi in 1947. He worked as an editor with the same publisher from 1950 to 1961. In 1959, he began the literary journal Il Menabo. Calvino’s novels were awarded various prizes, mainly due to their meta-literary nature. His best-known works are Le cosmicomiche (1964, English translation Cosmicomics, 1968), Se una notte d’inverno un viaggiatore (1979, English translation If on a winter’s night a traveler, 1981) and Palomar (1983, English translation Mr. Palomar, 1985).