Jeroen Kremers has been Vice-Chairman and Chief Risk Officer at the Royal Bank of Scotland since 2009. Previously, he was Corporate Executive Vice President and Head of Public Affairs with ABN Amro and, earlier, Deputy Treasurer General and director of Financial Markets at the Ministry of Finance. As a member of EU commissions for banking, insurance and stock trade, he contributed to the making of European financial policy. At the age of 43, Kremers was appointed Executive Director for the Netherlands and thirteen other countries at the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in Washington. Until 2012, Jeroen Kremers was chairman of the Tinbergen Institute, one of Europe’s most renowned academic educational and research institutions in the area of economics. He is currently a member of the supervisory board of Nederlandse Spoorwegen.