Natalia Ginzburg was a Jewish socialist writer. She married Leone Ginsburg, who began Einaudi Publishers with Giulio Einaudi and Cesare Pavese, in 1938. He died in 1944, after being tortured for political and racial reasons. In postwar Europe, she became known through novels such as Tutti i nostri ieri (All our yesterdays, 1952), the essay collection Le piccole virtù (1962, English translation The Little Virtues, 1986) and the autobiographical retrospective Lessico famigliare (1963, English translation Family Sayings, 1967). In 1983, Ginzburg became a member of parliament for the Italian Communist Party.