Nikolai Berdyaev, a Marxist in tsarist Russia, was imprisoned various times and sent to Siberia for two years in 1898. He then went on to study philosophy in Saint Petersburg and after the Russian Revolution became professor in Moscow. But his critical attitude towards communism led to his exile in Berlin, where he began an academy for philosophy and religion. Later, he settled down in Paris. He wrote works such as Dostoevsky (1922, English translation 1934), Christianity and Class War (1931, trans. 1933) and The Fate of Man in the Modern World (1934, trans. 1935). Berdyaev is considered one of the God-seekers, who aimed at a synthesis of Christianity and Marxism.