Tariq Ramadan is a writer and Professor of Contemporary Islamic Studies at Oxford University. He studied Philosophy and French Literature and obtained a PhD in Arabic Studies at the University of Geneva. From 2007 to 2009, he was Visiting Professor of Civil Identity at the Erasmus University in Rotterdam, but he was made to resign due to his work for a TV channel sponsored by the Iranian government. In works like Islam, the West, and the Challenge of Modernity (2001) and What I Believe (2009), Ramadan argues for a modern, European interpretation of Islam. In 2012 he published The Arab Awakening. January 2018, Ramadan was taken into custody and charged with rape after accusations by two women.