Tzvetan Todorov was a philosopher, literary theorist, historian of ideas and essayist. He has been working at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique since 1969, becoming its research director in 1987. Todorov translated works of the Russian formalists and wrote over 20 books on a wide variety of subjects, such as Introduction à la littérature fantastique (1970), Le nouveau désordre mondial. Réflexions d’un européen (2003, English translation New World Disorder: Reflections of a European, 2005), La Peur des barbares. Au-delà du choc des civilisations (2007, English translation The Fear of Barbarians: Beyond the Clash of Civilizations, 2010) and Les ennemis intimes de la démocratie (2012).