Valéry Giscard d’Estaing studied at the École Polytechnique and the École Nationale d’Administration. He embarked on a career with the Ministry of Finance and was Finance Minister between 1962 and 1966. From 1974 until 1981, he was President of France as a UDF (Union for French Democracy) politician, and he played a decisive role in the foundation of the European Council. He also modernized France by introducing divorce and abortion laws. Between 1989 and 1994, he was a member of European Parliament.