Giovanni Gentile was a philosopher. He wrote the essay La dottrina del fascismo (1932), in which he explained the nature and necessity of fascism, for Benito Mussolini. His Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals (1925) led to a polemic with his former friend, Benedetto Croce. Gentile replaced Croce as minister of education under Mussolini. He was killed by antifascist partisans in 1944.