Luc Ferry is a philosopher and was minister of Education, Science and Youth in France between 2002 and 2004. In that position, he was responsible for the application of the French law on secularization and religious symbols in schools. Ferry was also a professor in political science at various French universities. Among his works are Man Made God: The Meaning of Life and A Brief History of Thought: A Philosophical Guide to Living (2007). His intellectual autobiography l’Anticonformiste appeared in 2011.